World Labyrinth Day 2022

Once again (for the 14th time) the Labyrinth Society invites us to celebrate World Labyrinth Day:
World Labyrinth Day is an annual event sponsored by The Labyrinth Society as a worldwide action to “walk as one at 1” local time to create a rolling wave of peaceful energy across the globe. Every year on the first Saturday in May thousands of people around the globe participate in World Labyrinth Day as a moving meditation for world peace and celebration of the labyrinth experience. Many “Walk as One at 1” local time to create a rolling wave of peaceful energy passing from one time zone to the next.

This year, it is in Saturday, May 7, 2022

The call of the Labyrinth Society
The call of the Labyrinth Society

More information here … Link >


The 2nd annual Big Connection:

Building labyrinth communities for Service to Ourselves and our Planet

The call to Big Connection
The call to Big Connection

More information here … Link >


For many, however, it will also be possible, as usual, to walk a labyrinth.

No matter how, World Labyrinth Day 2022 can be celebrated.

If you are looking for a labyrinth near you, maybe you will find one here:

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The Labyrinth on the Silver Coins of Knossos, Part 3

There are now digital coin collections in which I have found more coins with labyrinth representations. This is primarily the network of University coin collections in Germany (link below).

In the common portal of the NUMiD group (also link below) I have now found ten coins with the search term: Labyrinth Knossos, of which I would like to show here 5 pieces with the labyrinth of the reverse side.

All of these works and their content are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non-Commercial – Distribution Alike 3.0 Germany License.


There are two coins in the coin cabinet of the Würzburg University.

One with the object number ID373 shows the head of Hera on the obverse side, and the 7 circuit labyrinth on the reverse side.

The 7 circuit labyrinth
The 7 circuit labyrinth

The second coin with the object number ID375 shows the head of Apollo on the obverse side, and a male figure sitting on a labyrinth on the reverse side. This has 5 circuits and should be one of the “faulty” silver coins from Knossos.

The faulty labyrinth
The “faulty” labyrinth

I also found two coins at the Erlangen University.

One with the object number ID134 shows the head of Hera on the obverse side, and the labyrinth of the Minotaur on the reverse side.

The 7 circuit labyrinth
The 7 circuit labyrinth

The other with the object number ID135 shows the head of Zeus on the obverse side, and the labyrinth of the Minotaur on the reverse side.

The 7 circuit labyrinth
The 7 circuit labyrinth

Then there is the Münster University with one coin. It has the object number ID1316, and shows on the obverse side Zeus as a bull with Europa sitting on his back. The reverse side shows the labyrinth of the Minotaur, which is unfortunately a bit difficult to recognize.

The 7 circuit labyrinth
The 7 circuit labyrinth

In the digital coin cabinet of the Academic Art Museum of the Bonn University I found another coin from Knossos under the inventory number G.34.07.

It shows the head of Zeus on the front and a square labyrinth on the back.

The 7 circuit labyrinth
The 7 circuit labyrinth

I strongly recommend visiting the digital coin collections: For additional information and to view coins not shown here.

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How to repair the Mistakes in Historical Scandinavian Labyrinths, Part 5

All that remains now are the last two enigmatic Icelandic labyrinths.
These are the drawings of two identical labyrinths from the National Museum of Reykjavik, NMI 3135 (Fig. 6) and NMI 5628 (Fig. 7) in the guest post by Richard Myers Shelton.

First I bring them into the geometrically correct form I am used to here.

NMI 3135
NMI 3135
NMI 5628
NMI 5628

The labyrinths look very similar. One is simply the other, each mirrored, so they are identical.

Both have 11 circuits and a larger center, but it is not possible to reach it. And there are only dead ends, but not all of them can be reached either. There is a branching for this, similar to the Wunderkreis.
The way via circuit 8 leads to 10 and ends here. The way via circuit 6 leads via 2 and 4 to 3 and ends there. I do not reach the end of 4 and 9 at all. The center can only be reached if I would make a hook directly after entering the labyrinth.

The thicker black lines (= the stone settings) form the uninterrupted line, Ariadne’s thread. But without any beginning or end, different from the Dritvík labyrinth. Presumably, the purpose of these labyrinths lies in the stone settings and not in the path between the lines, as we know it otherwise from all other labyrinths from this time and in this region?
But which one should it be? A prison for the spirits or trolls? A gateway to the underworld or the otherworld? A monument to a guardian spirit? For rituals or for magic?


Now my explanation: None of the above. Only the attempt to make once another labyrinth. One with 11 circuits, which are numerous in this region. Most of them are based on the extended seed pattern. But mathematically, there are over 1000 possibilities for an 11 circuit labyrinth, as Tony Phillips has calculated.

The sequence of circuits must always consist of a series of even and odd digits. And the entrance to the labyrinth must be on an odd circuit.
In addition, the four dead ends must be replaced. A boundary line may end here in each case, but not a path. So they become turning points.

Now my two suggestions for how the labyrinths could be redesigned:

11 circuit Classical labyrinth 7_5
11 circuit Classical labyrinth 7_5

First I drew an 11 circuit labyrinth according to the extended seed pattern with the cross, four double angles and four points (not shown here). I then numbered the circuits from the outside to the inside and then derived the sequence of circuits: 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7-12. I read this backwards and thus got the sequence of circuits for the transposed labyrinth, namely: 0-7-10-9-8-11-6-1-4-3-2-5-12. With this again, I constructed the Knidos style labyrinth shown here. By the way, the complementary one looks exactly like this, because the basic labyrinth according to the seed pattern is self-dual.
So here, from the entrance, I first go to the 7th circuit and from the 5th circuit, I enter the center.
So we would have a complementary 11 circuit labyrinth in front of us, just like it was the attempt in the 15 circuit Borgo labyrinth.

The second proposal can be developed from a shifted seed pattern:

11 circuit Classical labyrinth 7_9
11 circuit Classical labyrinth 7_9

For this I take a cross, draw one angle at the top of each side and three angles at the bottom of each side. The points come again into the four corners (not shown here). The level sequence is then: 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-11-9-12. From this I construct the labyrinth shown here in the Knidos style.
The three other relatives of this labyrinth I get then with the methods described in detail in this blog by Andreas by counting backwards and supplementing the circuit sequences. This would give us again three additional new suggestions

However, since there are over 1000 other theoretical possibilities, we ultimately do not know what the authors of the Icelandic labyrinths had in mind and what ideas guided them.

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The Dritvík Labyrinth on the Snæfellsnes peninsula in Iceland

Just a few months ago (in June 2021) Daniel C. Browning, Jr. (alias Ancient Dan) visited the Dritvík Labyrinth on the Snæfellsnes peninsula in Iceland (see the first Further Link below)
I warmly recommend reading this article and the associated first part.

That gave me some new insights into this very special labyrinth. Daniel kindly allow me to show some of his photos and graphics here, for which I am very grateful.

First I show Brynjúlf Jónsson’s 1900 plan of the Dritvík labyrinth, which (for me) is clearer than the one I had from Richard Myers Shelton in his guest post from January 2021.

Brynjúlf Jónsson’s 1900 plan of the Dritvík labyrinth
Brynjúlf Jónsson’s 1900 plan of the Dritvík labyrinth

Jónsson calls it Völundarhús (Wayland‘s house). Hermann Kern also states the Islandic labyrinths as Wayland’s houses. Icelandic parchment manuscripts depicting Wayland’s houses were already in existence in the 14th and 15th centuries. However, they are a hybrid of Troy towns and Medieval labyrinths that look very different from the Dritvík Wayland’s house. The other Nordic stone settings are often referred to as Troy towns, Babylons, Jatulintarha, Jericho, Jerusalem and similar. But these often say something about their meaning.

What does the labyrinth look like today? This is shown by an impressive aerial photo of Daniel from June 2021:

Dritvík labyrinth, restored
Dritvík labyrinth, restored, as it appeared in June 2021 (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2021)

You can see the differences to Jónsson’s drawing very clearly. Especially in the lower right part there are considerable deviations, the two loops became one.

Restored Dritvík labyrinth plan
Restored Dritvík labyrinth plan, created from aerial image (© Daniel C Browning Jr, 2021)

Jeff Saward explored the Dritvík Labyrinth in 1997 (Caerdroia 29 from 1998) and shows a photo of it in his book “Labyrinths and Mazes of the World” and in the Worldwide Labyrinth Locator (see the third Further Link below). Already there it shows the same layout as in 2021. A larger pile of stones in the middle is also noticeable. It’s a bit reminiscent of the Russian Babylons.

He calls it Volunderhus stone labyrinth and classifies it as Classical Baltic type with spiral at the center.

In order to understand the meaning of the Dritvík Labyrinth, it is very helpful to shed light on the cultural and historical background. And Daniel did that in great detail in the first part of his post. Again, I warmly recommend reading it.

At one point it says: Bárðr disappeared under the glacier and became the guardian spirit of the Snaefellsnes peninsula. The labyrinth could also be seen as the gateway to the underworld and as a monument or memory of Bárðr. Definitely as a place with magical meaning. Maybe we could even call it Bárðr’s house instead of Wayland’s house?

The special layout created by the stone setting are ideally suited to this. Because they alone represent an uninterrupted line, as we would expect from a labyrinth. It is shown in a “normal” labyrinth through the actually invisible part of the labyrinth, the path (or Ariadne’s thread). But here through the stones. And as a special feature, there is also the fact that these lines start and end in the middle, not on the outside as usual. As a result, this labyrinth is not as accessible as we are used to. With its dead ends, it could only serve as a trap.

Even the unfortunately failed restoration of 2000, in my opinion, does not change this finding. There is now an entrance with a branch like it is in a Wunderkreis, also a double spiral in the center. But you can’t go back to the entrance. You end up either on the right or on the left in a dead end.
The stone setting alone again forms an uninterrupted line that begins and ends in the center.

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