Archive for the ‘Labyrinth’ Category

In the context of the theme Labyrinth and Flower of Life, the similarity to a cube has been mentioned more often. The hexagonal shape of the labyrinth was just too reminiscent of a cube. And that got me looking for the labyrinth on the cube.

I have a magic cube and as a small brain training I solve it once a day. This is now memorized and routinely.

In Further Link below you can find out what a magic cube is.

First, I tried to put Ariadne’s thread on the small squares. This is relatively easy.

For better representation, the 6 sides of a cube are “flattened”:

The layout

The layout

You can draw in there Ariadne’s thread for a 3 circuit labyrinth type Knossos. Generally known, this has the path sequence: 3-2-1-4.
The beginning is on the frontside below at left. Then we go to the third line, to the second and the first line and finally to the center in 4 up in the middle square.

Ariadne's thread

Ariadne’s thread

And here in an isometric view:

Three views

Three views

I hope you can imagine that on the drawings?
We see the lines on 5 sides of the cube, the bottom remains empty. The middle is slightly larger, but we do not touch all the small squares.

And here is a template to make such a cube:



If you want, you can download, print, copy or view this template as a PDF file.

Such a cube would certainly be quite easy to solve as a magic cube. Especially if you have a template of it in mind.

Related Posts

Further Link


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The Labyrinth on Folio 51 r

In the previous post I have presented the nine labyrinth designs by Gossembrot and gave references to the sources (see below: related posts 1). The first labyrinth on folio 51 r undoubtedly is the most important of all. It is the earliest preserved example of a five-arm labyrinth at all. Furthermore, it’s course of the pathway is unprecedented and deviates from every previous type of labyrinth. Here I will show the course of the pathway and it’s special features stage by stage. For this, I use the Ariadne’s Thread inscribed into the labyrinth and in parallel the pattern. This is the same approach I had applied with the labyrinth by Al Qazvini (related posts 2). As a baseline I always use a labyrinth with the entrance on bottom and in clockwise rotational direction. Gossembrot labyrinth fol. 51 r, however, rotates anti-clockwise. Therfore, in figure 1, I first mirror the labyrinth horizontally.

Figure 1. Labyrinth on Folio 51 r (left), horizontally mirrored (right)

The image on left shows the original labyrinth of fol. 51 r, the right image shows the same labyrinth mirrored. Mirroring does not affect the course of the pathway with the exception of the pathway traversing in the opposite direction.

Fig. 2 shows the first stage of the course when it enters the labyrinth. This is nothing special. The path fills the space left over by the pattern and continues to the innermost circuit as directly as possible.

Figure 2. Way into the Labyrinth

This circuit is then traversed in a forward direction through all five segments, as can be seen in fig. 3. This is also nothing special either.

Figure 3. Forward Direction on the 7th Circuit Through all Segments

The special characteristic of the course of the path starts after it has turned at the end of the fifth segment. Then it proceeds to a movement in backward direction, following a line that alternates between forming a curve wrapping and being wrapped and also marking the axes. This process continues to the first side-arm (fig 4).

Figure 4. Backward Direction Onset of Special Course

At this point the former course is interrupted. Again the path marks the axis (first side-arm), but then continues as a meander through segment 2, as shown in fig. 5.

Figure 5. Backward Direction, Interruption, Insertion of Meander

From there the original course is resumed. Still in a backward direction, the pathway fills the rest of segment 2 and segment 1 and finally turns from the 2nd to the 1st circuit (fig. 6).

Figure 6. Backward Direction, Resumption of Special Course

From here now it continues again in forward direction and takes it’s course through all segments until it reaches the opposite side of the main axis. In passing, it fills the inner space it had left over on its course in backward direction in segments 3 and 4 (fig. 7).

Figure 7. Forward Direction Through all Segments

From there it reaches the center after having filled the space left over in segment 5 (fig. 8).

Figure 8. Completion, Reaching the Center

This course of the pathway, like in some sector labyrinths, results in symmetric pairs of nested turns of the pathway at each side-arm. Unlike in sector labyrinths, however, the pathway does not complete one sector after another, but traverses through all sectors in each direction. First in forward direction on the innermost circuit, then in backward direction modulating through circuits 6 to 2, and finally again in forward direction on circuits 1, 4, and 5.

Related Posts:

  1. Sigmund Gossembrot / 1
  2. The Labyrinth by Al Qazvini

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Almost seven years ago, the flower of life was a topic in this blog. Now I would like to add a few things.
First, the original drawing of Ariadne’s thread in the flower of life. During a visit to Salzburg, Marianne Ewaldt asked me if the labyrinth was included in the flower of life. She gave me a small anniversary publication for the 80th birthday of Dr. Siegfried Hermerding, which was titled “The Flower of Life and the Universe”. It contained countless symbols and prototypes, but not a labyrinth.

Ariadne's Thread in the Flower of Life

Ariadne’s Thread in the Flower of Life

This is the picture to which I drew Ariadne’s thread for the three-circuit labyrinth on 25 June 2012 in Salzburg.

What is it about the flower of life? A sober and rational answer comes from Wikipedia :

An overlapping circles grid is a geometric pattern of repeating, overlapping circles of equal radii in two-dimensional space. Commonly, designs are based on circles centered on triangles (with the simple, two circle form named vesica piscis) or on the square lattice pattern of points.

Patterns of seven overlapping circles appear in historical artefacts from the 7th century BC onwards; they become a frequently used ornament in the Roman Empire period, and survive into medieval artistic traditions both in Islamic art (girih decorations) and in Gothic art. The name “Flower of Life” is given to the overlapping circles pattern in New Age publications.

Many see much more in the flower of life. They may, but one should not overemphasize. From the labyrinthine point of view, it remains to be noted that it is a grid in which, depending on the size, different labyrinths can be accommodated. They always have a hexagonal shape and a cube-shaped appearance. It’s a style similar to the labyrinths in man-in-the-maze style, as Andreas has explained in several articles.

In the articles mentioned below further drawings and derivations of Andreas and me can be found.

To accommodate a 7-circuit labyrinth in the Flower of Life, you have to extend the grid of full circles, as Andreas has stated. Marianne Ewaldt did that as a ceramic artist and gave me as present such a labyrinth last year.

A Golden Ariadne's Thread in th Flower of Life

A Golden Ariadne’s Thread in th Flower of Life

And here is another drawing of me with all the lines of the labyrinth in a slightly larger grid:

The complete 7-circuit classical labyrinth

The complete 7-circuit classical labyrinth

It can be clearly seen that the outer boundary lines form a hexagon and also depict a cube.

Related Posts

Further Link

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Labyrinth Designs – Overview

Sigmund Gossembrot the Elder, humanist and mayor of Augsburg, had compiled a miscellany around 1480 (siehe below: literature 1). Into a text in Latin on the seven arts were included nine labyrinth drawings, all executed in brown ink on paper (Kern, p. 139 / 140, see literature 2). This manuscript is accessible online in an unprecedented quality (see below: further links 1) and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial – ShareAlike 4.0 International License (see below: further links 2).

The following figures have been obtained by copying and cropping the image files of the Münchener DigitalisierungsZentrum, Digitale Bibliothek. They can be found on sheets, folios (fol.) 51-54, each on the front-side r (= recto) and back side v (= verso). Here I first want to present a global overview. The links on the captions’ references to the folios directly lead to the corresponding pages of the online edition of the manuscript. Here you will be linked directly to a preview with miniatures of the pages. From there you can zoom in the pages or browse the manuscript. I strongly recommend to take a look at the manuscript, that is worth it!

Fig. 1 shows a five-arm labyrinth with seven circuits and a central pentagram.

Figure 1. Labyrinth on Fol. 51 r


Fig. 2 shows a circular, four-arm labyrinth with eight circuits.

Figure 2. Labyrinth on Fol. 51 v

In fig. 3 another circular, four-arm labyrinth with eight circuits and a somewhat differing course of the pathway is depicted.

Figure 3. Labyrinth on Fol. 52 r

Fig. 4 shows the upper, fig. 5 the lower of two square form labyrinths each with four arms and eight circuits. The uppper has the same course of the pathway as the labyrinth in fig. 3, the lower the same as the one in fig. 2.

Figure 4. Labyrinth on Fol. 52 v oben


Figure 5. Labyrinth on Fol. 52 v unten

In fig. 6 we see a circular one-arm labyrinth with nine circuits.

Figure 6. Labyrinth on Fol. 53 r

Fig. 7 shows an incomplete labyrinth that was crossed out with recognizably five arms and seven circuits.

Figure 7. Labyrinth on Fol. 53 v

In fig. 8 a complex labyrinth with 12 circuits can be found.

Figure 8. Labyrinth on Fol. 54 r

Finally, fig. 9 shows a circular one-arm labyrinth with 11 circuits.

Figure 9. Labyrinth on Fol. 54 v

Some of these labyrinth designs include types of labyrinths of their own, others are of existing types, some of which with unchanged course of the path, whereas in others the course of the path was modified to a multicursal maze. I will come back to this more in detail in the next posts.


  1. Gossembrot, Sigismundus: Sigismundi Gossembrot Augustani liber adversariorum, 15. Jh. München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 3941.
  2. Kern, Hermann: Through the Labyrinth: Designs and Meanings over 5000 years. London: Prestel 2000.

Further Links

  1. Gossembrot, Sigismundus: Sigismundi Gossembrot Augustani liber adversariorum
  2. Terms of Use

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Again you are invited from The Labyrinth Society to celebrate the World Labyrinth Day:

Celebrate the 11th Annual World Labyrinth Day on May 4, 2019 and join over 5,000 people taking steps for peace, ‘Walking as One at 1’ in the afternoon. Last year there were participants in over 35 countries.

Flyer TLS

A small, but global Wunderkreis on the flyer of the TLS

Most nicely it would be if everybody which is able would walk a labyrinth. But it is also possible, as a substitute to trace a finger labyrinth, to make a labyrinth meditation or to be active labyrinthine in some way.

More here:

If you are looking for a labyrinth near you, maybe you will find one here:

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Find our Typology Confirmed

In chapter 3 of his book, Herman Wind (see below: Literature 1) aims at introducing a new categorization of labyrinths. For this purpose he has used images of labyrinths primarily from Kern (Literature 2) and also from some other sources. Wind has abstracted the sequences of circuits from the ground plans of the individual labyrinths. In the labyrinth library, table 3.2.1 A-F on pages 73-78 of his book, entries of 235 labyrinths can be found. Each line represents one labyrinth with a reference to figure, location, date when recorded and sequence of circuits. Labyrinths with the same sequences of circuits were arranged subsequently. By this, Wind has attributed similar labyrinths to the same groups, divergent labyrinths to different groups and thus created a typology. However, he does not term his groups „types“ but „families“ instead. These families have not been given different names and are also not always clearly distinguished one from another. Therefore in the labyrinth library, the reader himself must draw parentheses around the lines with the same sequences of numbers in order to identify the families.

In the book, five examples of the use of the labyrinth library are presented. Let us have a look at the first example (p. 81). This shows examples of labyrinths that were attributed to the same family as the labyrinth of Ravenna.

Figure 1. Labyrinths Attributed to the Same Family as Ravenna

Examples A „Filarete“, C „Ravenna“, and F l(eft) „Watts 7 circuits“ all have the same sequence of circuits. Example B „Hill“ was equally attributed to this family, even though it is completely different. It can be seen at first sight, that this labyrinth does not belong to this family. This is a faulty drawing of a labyrinth of the Saffron Walden type. It seems, there has been some mistake in the attribution of the labyrinth in the labyrinth library. Interestingly, neither the author nor the editor have noticed this. Although they have noticed the difference in the much more resembling example F r(ight) „Watts 11 circuits“, but only stated a certain similarity with the family of Ravenna. This is just what can be seen in a direct comparison of both images F l and F r.

The way Wind uses the sequence of circuits causes two problems:

First: This sequence of circuits is unique only in alternating one-arm labyrinths. If we consider also non-alternating labyrinths, examples with different courses of the pathway may have the same sequence of circuits (fig. 2).

Figure 2. Labyrinths with the Sequence of Circuits 7 4 5 6 1 2 3 0

So, Wind attributes the two non-alternating labyrinths (a) St. Gallen and (b) Syrian Grammar to the same family. This is correct. Should he find an alternating labyrinth of the shape (c), however, he would have to attribute this to the same family, although it has a clearly different course of the pathway. This because it’s sequence of circuits is 7 4 5 6 1 2 3 0, just the same as in examples (a) and (b). (For other examples with ambiguous sequences of circuits see related posts 1, 2).

Second: Wind’s sequences of circuits for the labyrinths with multiple arms are incomplete. They only indicate which circuits are covered at all but provide no information on how long the respective pieces of the pathway are. Such sequences of circuits are not even unique in alternating labyrinths. As Jacques Hébert explains, the sequence of circuits in labyrinths with multiple arms must take into account the division into segments and the resulting variation in length of path segments (Literature 3). This can be done in different ways.

Figure 3. Sequences of Circuits of the Wayland’s House Labyrinth

Figure 3 shows one of the possibilities using a pure sequence of numbers with the example of the Wayland’s House 1 labyrinth. The sequence of circuits of this labyrinth according to Wind (lower row W:) has 21 numbers. If we consider also the length of the path segments following Hébert (upper row H:) the sequence has 30 numbers. From Wind’s sequence of circuits the labyrinth cannot be restored without an image of it or only after multiple attempts. From Hébert’s sequence of circuits it can be restored without difficulty.

That there may exist alternating labyrinths with different courses of the pathway for the same incomplete sequence of circuits is shown in fig. 4.

Figure 4. Labyrinths with Different Courses of the Path and the Same Incomplete Sequence of Circuits

The two labyrinths shown have different courses of the pathway. This is represented in the complete sequence of circuits (upper lines). In the incomplete sequence of circuits (lower lines), however, the difference has disappeared. It is the same for both labyrinths.


The categorization by Wind is not new. We have done this already (Literature 4). We have used about the same material, have attributed similar labyrinths to the same groups and divergent labyrinths to different groups and refer to this as a typology (related posts 3, 4, 5). We also obtain more or less the same results (further links). Thus, the categorization by Wind confirms our typology to a great extent. As the criterion for similar or divergent, we use the course of the pathway. However, we don’t describe this with the sequence of circuits but with the pattern. This allows us a unique and complete representation of the course of the pathway and an unambigous attribution of the labyrinth examples to types of labyrinths.


  1. Listening to the Labyrinths, by Herman G. Wind, editor Jeff Saward. F&N Eigen Beheer, Castricum, Netherlands, 2017.
  2. Kern H. Through the Labyrinth: Designs and Meanings over 5000 years. London: Prestel 2000.
  3. Hébert J. A Mathematical Notation for Medieval Labyrinths. Caerdroia 34 (2004), p. 37-43.
  4. Frei A. A Catalogue of Historical Labyrinth Patterns. Caerdroia 39 (2009), P. 37-47.

Related Posts

  1. Circuits and Segments
  2. The Level Sequence in One-arm Labyrinths
  3. Type or Style / 6
  4. Type or Style / 5
  5. Type or Style / 1

Further Links

Katalog der Muster historischer Labyrinthe

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In 2017, a commemorative coin dedicated to the Minoan civilization was issued by the Mint of the Central Bank of Greece.
This earliest civilization in Europe can be traced back to the years around 2600 BC. The Minoan civilization got its name from the famous King Minos. The story goes that, with the help of the god of the seas, Poseidon, and a white bull, he came to power and thus gained fame and reverence among his people.

The 50-euro gold coin from 2017 was issued with an edition of 1500 pieces and minted in real gold (999.9 / 1000) in the highest collector quality “polished plate”.

Here is the value side:

Value side: Hellenic Democracy 50 Euro

Value side: Hellenic Democracy 50 Euro

And here the picture side:

Picture side: Minoan Civilization 2017

Picture side: Minoan Civilization 2017

Two nested cross meanders can be seen in a large square around 5 smaller squares.
Here is the structure in a black and white tracing:

Draw up of the picture side

Draw up of the picture side

The black lines form two closed line systems without beginning and end. The white lines have branches and dead-ends, also without access. This is reminiscent of a similar representation on the silver coins of Knossos, which are well over 2000 years older (see related posts below).

Should the representation again symbolize the labyrinth of the Minotaur?

Related Posts

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