# Reflections on the Wunderkreis, 2

As we have seen (in part 1), the most different variants of the Wunderkreis can be created. Depending on which part is emphasized more or less, they then look like.
When creating a new labyrinth, of course, it also depends on the size of the available space and the purpose the labyrinth is to serve.

The path sequence, if we go first to the left: 0-3-2-1-4-a1-b2-c1-c2-b1-a2-5-0. To the right we have: 0-5-a2-b1-c2-c1-b2-a1-4-1-2-3-0.
With the digits we have the sequence with odd and even numbers, as we know it from a classical labyrinth.
With the letters, which designate the elements of the double spiral, we can also see a certain systematic: The letters come alternately one after the other. If two identical letters follow each other, we have reached the center of the spiral and the basic change of direction. The additions “1” designate the lower part and the addition “2” the upper part of a transition.
If we take a closer look at the circuit sequences, we can see that the second one (to the right) is opposite to the first one.
So we can say that here two different but related labyrinths of a group are united in one. Depending on which path we choose first.

How many circuits does this Wunderkreis actually have?
That is a little difficult to count. To do this, we divide the figure into three parts, the lower left quarter, the upper half, and the lower right quarter. Let’s start at the bottom left: There are the 3 “labyrinthine” circuits and 3 of the double spiral. At the top we have 4 “labyrinthine” circuits and the 3 of the double spiral. Bottom right: 5 “labyrinthine” circuits and the 3 of the double spiral. So, depending on the angle of view, we have 6, 7 or 8 circuits.
The type designation is the maximum number of “labyrinthine” turns plus the letter sequence for the turns of the double spiral. Adding both gives the number of total circuits. In this example “5 a-c” so 8 in total.
In the file name for the drawings I have tried to express this as well, additionally provided with the indication of the entrance and the exit of the labyrinth.

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# Reflections on the Wunderkreis, 1

The Wunderkreis has often been the subject of this blog. Today I would like to bring some basic remarks to it.

As is known, the Wunderkreis consists of labyrinthine windings and a double spiral in the center. Thus, there is no center to reach as usually in the labyrinth and, in addition, an extra exit, but it can also be formed together with the entrance in a branching.

This makes it more difficult to represent all this in a pattern. Also the usual path sequence (or circuit sequence) with the alternating odd and even numbers does not work properly anymore.

Therefore, I suggest to designate the spiral-shaped circuits with letters. This also gives the possibility to better describe the different types.

Here is the smallest Wunderkreis in my opinion:

A 3 circuit (normal) labyrinth with a double spiral. The path sequence, starting to the left, would be: 0-1-2-a1-a2-3-0. If I move to the right first, the result is: 0-3-a2-a1-2-1-0.

General note on “0”. This always means the area outside the labyrinth. Even if “0” does not appear on the drawings.

Now I can either increase the outer circuits or only the double spiral or both.

This is one more course for the double spiral. The path sequence to the left: 0-1-2-a1-b2-b1-a2-3-0. To the right: 0-3-a2-b1-b2-a1-2-1-0.

And now:

The double spiral as in the first example, the outer circuits increased by two. This creates a path sequence with (to the left): 0-3-2-1-4-a1-a2-5-0. Or to the right: 0-5-a2-a1-4-1-2-3-0.

Now follows:

In addition to the previous example, the double spiral is also enlarged. This results in: 0-3-2-1-4-a1-b2-b1-a2-5-0. And: 0-5-a2-b1-b2-a1-4-1-2-3-0.

In the circuit sequences I recognize the regularities as they occur also in the already known classical corresponding labyrinths. And if I omit the double spiral, I also end up with these labyrinths.

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# How to sort a Labyrinth Group

Where does a labyrinth belong? And what relatives does it have? How do I actually sort the related labyrinths in a group? What kind of relationships are there? Or: How do I find the related ones in a group?

If I want to know something more, I first take an arbitrary labyrinth and generate the further relatives of a group by counting backwards and completing the numbers of the circuit sequences. It doesn’t matter whether I “catch” the basic labyrinth by chance or any member of the group.

As an example, I’ll take the 11 circuit labyrinth chosen as the second suggestion in my last post. Here it can be seen in a centered version in Knidos style:

The level sequence is: 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-11-10-9-12. The entrance to the labyrinth is on the 7th circuit, the entrance to the center is from the 9th circuit. This is the reason to name it 7_9 labyrinth.

By counting backwards (and swapping 0 and 12), I create the transpose labyrinth to it: 0-9-10-11-8-1-6-3-4-5-2-7-12.

The entrance to the labyrinth is on the 9th circuit, and the entrance to the center is on the 7th circuit.

Now I complete this circuit sequence 9-10-11-8-1-6-3-4-5-2-7 to the number 12 of the center, and get the following level sequence: 0-3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5-12. This results in the corresponding complementary version.

Now a labyrinth is missing, because there are four different versions for the non-self-dual types.
The easiest way to do this is to count backwards again (so I form the corresponding transpose version) and get from the circuit sequence 0-3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5-12 the circuit sequence: 0-5-10-7-8-9-6-11-4-1-2-3-12.
Alternatively, however, I could have produced the complementary copy by completing the digits of the path sequence of the first example above to 12.

The entrance to the labyrinth is made on the 5th circuit, and the entrance to the center is made from the 3rd circuit.

Now I have produced many transpose and complementary copies. But which is the basic labyrinth and which the dual? And the “real” transpose and complementary ones?

Sorting is done on the basis of the circuit sequences. The basic labyrinth is the one that starts with the lowest digit: 0-3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5-12, in short: the 3_5 labyrinth, i.e. our third example above.

The next is the transpose, the 5_3 labyrinth, the fourth example above.

This is followed by the dual, the 7_9 maze, which is the first example above.

The fourth is the complementary labyrinth, the 9_7 labyrinth, the second example above.

The order is therefore: B, T, D, C. This is independent of how the labyrinth was formed, whether by counting backwards or by completing the circuit sequences.

To conclude a short excerpt from the work of Yadina Clark, who is in the process of working out basic principles about labyrinth typology:

## Groups

### Labyrinths related by Base-Dual-Transpose-Complement relationships

Any labyrinth in a group can be chosen as the base starting point to look at these relationships, but the standard arrangement of the group begins with the numerically lowest circuit sequence string in the base position.

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# How to Make the Related Labyrinths

I use a different method to generate the related labyrinths than Andreas. But I’ll get the same result. This is how we complement each other.

Essentially, I am using the level or path (= circuit) sequence to get the version of a particular labyrinth I want. Also, I am taking the path sequence to construct the labyrinth, not the seed pattern.

I usually number from the outside in (the left digits in blue), additionally here from the inside to the outside (the right digits in green).
The level sequence for the basic labyrinth is here: 0-1-2-5-4-3-6. “0” stands for outside, “6” stands for the center. We have a 5 circuit labyrinth in front of us. “1” to “5” are the numbers of the circuits (paths), hence the path sequence 1-2-5-4-3 (fig. 1).

To create the dual labyrinth, I just use the green numbers on the right side of the basic labyrinth. I determine the level sequence by going outwards from the center. I get 6-3-2-1-4-5-0. Now I draw a labyrinth using this row of digits, going from the outside to the center. But first I replace “6” with “0” and “0” with “6”, I swap inside and outside as it were. The new level sequence is then: 0-3-2-1-4-5-6 (fig. 2).

The left numbers now indicate the level sequence: 0-3-2-1-4-5-6. If I now read the green numbers on the right side, I of course get the basic labyrinth again.

Now I use another technique to get the transposed labyrinth. I take the path sequence of the dual labyrinth, here: 3-2-1-4-5 and complement all numbers to “6”.
3-2-1-4-5 dual
3-4-5-2-1 transpose
————
6-6-6-6-6
The second line, completed by “0” for the outside and “6” for the center, gives the level sequence for the transposed labyrinth: 0-3-4-5-2-1-6 (fig. 3).

But there is still a different technique to get there: I can read the path sequence from the basic labyrinth backwards and again complete with “0” and “6”.
1-2-5-4-3 base
3-4-5-2-1 transpose
The second line, completed by “0” for the outside and “6” for the center, also gives the level sequence for the transposed labyrinth: 0-3-4-5-2-1-6 (fig.3).

If I now take the green numbers of the right side, I’ll get the dual of this transposed labyrinth, which is the next, the complementary labyrinth with the level sequence: 0-5-4-1-2-3-6 (fig. 4).

But again there is also the above described technique to get the complementary labyrinth. I take the basic labyrinth and complement the numbers of its path sequence to “6”.
1-2-5-4-3 base
5-4-1-2-3 complement
————
6-6-6-6-6
The second line, completed by “0” for the outside and “6” for the center, gives the level sequence for the complementary labyrinth: 0-5-4-1-2-3-6 (fig. 4).

I can also take the dual labyrinth and read the path sequence backwards, and again add “0” and “6”.
3-2-1-4-5 dual
5-4-1-2-3 transpose
The second line, added with outside and center gives the level sequence for the complementary labyrinth: 0-5-4-1-2-3-6 (fig. 4).

If I now take the green numbers on the right side, I’ll get the dual labyrinth to this complementary labyrinth, namely the transposed labyrinth with the level sequence: 0-3-4-5-2-1-6 (fig. 3).

So we have seen three different ways to transform one labyrinth into another by using the path or level sequence.

However, it only takes two methods to create the appropriate labyrinths. I personally prefer the “transposing” technique and the “complementing” technique.

First we have the basic labyrinth (fig.1). Through transposing the path sequence of the basic labyrinth 1-2-5-4-3 into 3-4-5-2-1 I’ll then get the transposed labyrinth (fig.3).
This transposed labyrinth with the path sequence 3-4-5-2-1 I transform to the dual labyrinth by complementing the path sequence to 3-2-1-4-5 (fig.2).
This dual labyrinth I then transform to the complementary labyrinth by transposing its path sequence 3-2-1-4-5 into 5-4-1-2-3 for the complementary labyrinth (fig.4).
For control purposes, I can transform the basic labyrinth into the complementary by complementing the path sequence 1-2-5-4-3 of the basic into 5-4-1-2-3 (fig. 4) for the complementary.

All of these transformation methods have the same effect as the rotating and mirroring techniques by Andreas.

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