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Posts Tagged ‘path sequence’

It seemed obvious to apply the principles for two-parted 5 circuit labyrinths in the previous posts also for 7 circuit labyrinths.

For this purpose, the double barrier is extended to 6 passages, thus creating a triple barrier.

This is what it looks like:

A two-parted 7 circuit concentric labyrinth (entrance 3rd track)

A two-parted 7 circuit concentric labyrinth (entrance 3rd track)

It is noteworthy that both the entry into the labyrinth as well as the entry into the center is possible in and from the same circuit, here from the third circuit.
The path sequence is: 3-6-5-4-7-2-1-2-7-4-5-6-3-8

But it is also possible to design that from the 5th circuit. This creates a new type again.
Here is the example:

A two-parted 7 circuit concentric labyrinth (entrance 5th track)

A two-parted 7 circuit concentric labyrinth (entrance 5th track)

The path sequence is then: 5-4-3-6-7-2-1-2-7-6-3-4-5-8


And here are the two variants in Knidos style:

A two-parted 7 circuit labyrinth in Knidos style (entrance 3rd track)

A two-parted 7 circuit labyrinth in Knidos style (entrance 3rd track)

 

And here from the 5th circuit:

A two-parted 7 circuit labyrinth in Knidos style (entrance 5th track)

A two-parted 7 circuit labyrinth in Knidos style (entrance 5th track)

Now you could move the barrier and its related elements upwards. Then it would not be the first circuit who is completely gone through, but the innermost, the 7th circuit.

So the whole structure (pattern), expressed in the path sequence, would be changed. That would also create a new type of labyrinth again.

Here in a simplified representation:

A two-parted concentric 7 circuit labyrinth (entrance 3rd track)

A two-parted concentric 7 circuit labyrinth (entrance 3rd track)

Here with entrance in the 5th circuit:

A two-parted concentric 7 circuit labyrinth (entrance 5th track)

A two-parted concentric 7 circuit labyrinth (entrance 5th track)

But someone else had this idea. On the Harmony Labyrinths website, Yvonne R. Jacobs has introduced hundreds of new labyrinth designs and copyrighted them.

She calls these types Luna V (Desert Moon Labyrinth) and Luna VI (Summer Moon Labyrinth). On her website you can look at the corresponding drawings and even order finger labyrinths (only in the USA).

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In dealing with the double-barrier technique in recent posts, I found this installation of Mark Wallinger’s Labyrinths on the London Underground:

The labyrinth 233/270 at the station Hyde Park Corner, Photo: credit © Jack Gordon

The labyrinth 233/270 at the station Hyde Park Corner, Photo: credit © Jack Gordon

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

The special feature of this is that two double barriers are located next to each other in the upper part of the central axis. In the routing chosen by him you move at the transition from the 2nd to the 3rd quadrant first away from the center.

I’ve changed that so much that you would “experience” a movement to the center in a walkable labyrinth.

This is what it looks like:

A new labyrinth in concentric style

A new labyrinth in concentric style

I have also moved the side double barriers and this makes the routing in all quadrants also different. So a new type of labyrinth is born.

Here in Knidos style:

A new centered sector labyrinth in Knidos style

A new centered sector labyrinth in Knidos style

Why not as a two-parted labyrinth?

A new two-parted 5 circuit labyrinth

A new two-parted 5 circuit labyrinth

The left part has the path sequence: 3-4-5-2-1 and the right part: 5-4-1-2-3, so there are two 5 circuit labyrinths in it.

And here again in Knidos style:

A new two-parted and centered 5 circuit labyrinth in Knidos style

A new two-parted and centered 5 circuit labyrinth in Knidos style

The remarkable thing about this type is that both the entry into the labyrinth in the 3rd lane takes place, as well as the entry into the center.

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There are eight possibilities for a one arm 5 circuit labyrinth (see Related Posts below).

The structure of the different labyrinths can be expressed through the path sequence. Here is a list:

  1.  3-2-1-4-5
  2.  5-4-1-2-3
  3.  5-2-3-4-1
  4.  1-4-3-2-5
  5.  3-4-5-2-1
  6.  1-2-5-4-3
  7.  1-2-3-4-5
  8.  5-4-3-2-1

The sector labyrinth presented in my last post (see Related Posts below) has a different path sequence in all 4 quadrants. In other words, there are 4 different labyrinths hidden in it. These were the path sequences in the 1st to the 4th line of the list above.


Today another 5 circuit sector labyrinth modeled with Gossembrot’s double barrier technique:

A new 5 circuit sector labyrinth in concentric style

A new 5 circuit sector labyrinth in concentric style

The path sequence in quadrant I is: 3-4-5-2-1, in quadrant IV: 1-2-5-4-3. These are the aforementioned courses at the 5th and 6th place. The two upper quadrants have: 1-4-3-2-5 and 5-2-3-4-1. These correspond to the upper pathways at the 4th and 3rd places. Not surprising, because the transition in these sector labyrinths takes place either on the 1st or the 5th course.

Here in a representation that we know from the Roman labyrinths:

The new sector labyrinth in square shape

The new sector labyrinth in square shape

Or here in Knidos style:

The new sector labyrinth in Knidos style

The new sector labyrinth in Knidos style

On Wikimedia Commons I found this picture of Mark Wallinger’s unique Labyrinth installation at Northwood Hills station, installed as part of a network-wide art project marking 150 years of the London Underground. It is part of the emboss family (one of the 11 labyrinth design families).

Mark Wallinger Labyrinth 10/270, Photo: credit © Jack Gordon

Mark Wallinger Labyrinth 10/270, Photo: credit © Jack Gordon

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.


Now only two path sequences are missing, then we would have the eight complete.
There is also a new sector labyrinth for this:

Another new sector labyrinth in concentric style

Another new sector labyrinth in concentric style

In the two lower quadrants we have the courses 1-2-3-4-5 and 5-4-3-2-1. These are the above mentioned pathway sequences at the the 7th and 8th places. The upper two sequences (5-2-3-4-1 and 1-4-3-2-5) are again identical to the aforementioned two labyrinths and the one in the previous post.

The quadratic representation shows that it is actually a mixture of serpentine type and meander type (see Related Posts below).

The new sector labyrinth in Roman Style

The new sector labyrinth in Roman Style

Here in Knidos style:

The new sector labyrinth in Knidos style

The new sector labyrinth in Knidos style

Simply put, in only three sector labyrinths can all theoretically possible eight 5 circuit labyrinths be proved.


But it is also possible to move the “upper” pathways down, so that again arise new display options.
Then you can swap the right and left “lower” quadrants.
Or mirror everything and create right-handed labyrinths.

Here are two examples:

Even one more new sector labyrinth in round shape

Even one more new sector labyrinth in round shape

Another new sector labyrinth in Knidos style

Another new sector labyrinth in Knidos style

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I was particularly fascinated by the technique of double barriers in Gossembrot’s 7 circuit labyrinths presented in recent posts. This makes possible completely new types of labyrinths. He probably did not “invent” the double barriers, but he was the first to consistently and systematically use them.

How does this technique affect 5 circuit labyrinths?
I tried that and came across a whole new kind of sector labyrinths.
As you know, one sector after another is traversed in these before the center is reached.

The historical Roman labyrinths are divided into three different variants: the meander type, the spiral type and the serpentine type (see the Related Posts below).
The entry into the labyrinth is usually up to the innermost lane. And in all four sectors the structures are the same.
The change to the next sector either always takes place outside or even once inside (or alternately).

Now the new type:

The new sector labyrinth in concentric style

The new sector labyrinth in concentric style

What is so special about that?
Already the entrance: It takes place on the 3rd lane. This does not occur in any historical sector labyrinth. And the entrance into the center is also from the 3rd lane.

Then the structure expressed by the path sequence is different in each quadrant.

Quadrant I:   3-2-1-4-5
Quadrant II:  5-2-3-4-1
Quadrant III: 1-4-3-2-5
Quadrant IV: 5-4-1-2-3

The transitions to the next sector are always alternately.

Nevertheless, the new labyrinth is very balanced and mirror-symmetrical.

Here in a square shape:

The new sector labyrinth in square shape

The new sector labyrinth in square shape

This makes it easier to compare with the previously known Roman labyrinths (see below), which are mostly square.

The difference to these becomes clear especially in the presentation as a diagram. Because this shows the inner structure, the pattern.

The diagram for the new sector labyrinth

The diagram for the new sector labyrinth

Very nice to see are the nested meanders.

But even in Knidos style, this type is doing well:

The new sector labyrinth in Knidos style

The new sector labyrinth in Knidos style

How should one call this type? And who builds one as a walkable labyrinth?

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In the previous articles on this topic, I have already explained the method of the stamp-folding calculation brought into play by Tony Phillips.

Now it should go on here. Namely, it is possible to generate further variants of labyrinths by simply rotating the polygon used.

I take again the net with the polygon from the last post on this topic (part 2).

The net with the polygon

This diagram can be used to create four different labyrinths. Two directly (line 2 and 3), the other two by a simple calculation.

Other constellations can be gained by rotating the network 12 times by 30 degrees. Or in other words, it’s just like changing the clock for the summer or winter time.
Since only interesting labyrinths are of interest here, I omit all positions where the lines would point to the first and / or last circuit. So from the 12 you should not reach the 1 or the 11. Only the “times” are interesting, which point farther away, that is, run more sharply.
That would be in the above net the 1, 5 and 6. So I turn only to these times. In other words, I bring the 1, 5, and 6 into alignment with the 12. I turn the net by 30, 150, and 180 degrees. To rotate is the net with the polygon, the numbers stay in place.

Here’s the first turn:

rotated by 30 degrees

rotated by 30 degrees

I get four completely different path sequences than in the original above.

The second rotation:

rotated by 150 degrees

rotated by 150 degrees

I get four new variants again.

The last rotation:

rotated by 180 degrees

rotated by 180 degrees

Here I just get a different order of the sequences than in the original polygon. So there are no new variants, just another arrangement. This is because the rotation of 180 degrees corresponds to a symmetrical reflection.

It is not always possible to find new variants. With the help of this net I have generated a total of 12 different path sequences for 12 new labyrinths.

The path sequences can be directly converted into a labyrinth drawing.
Here only one (again in concentric style) is to be shown (the 2nd path sequence from the first polygon above):

A new 11 circuit labyrinth

A new 11 circuit labyrinth

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Again we deal with the simple, alternating, transit mazes, defined by the New York Professor of Mathematics Tony Phillips. In his calculations he ascertains a number of 1014 theoretically possible variants of interesting 11 circuit labyrinths (12-level mazes).

He also describes a simplified method for calculating these variants, which John E. Koehler developed in 1968 to solve a related problem of stamp-folding.

The following pictures should explain this method. To this I first use the already known path sequence for the 11 circuit labyrinth which can be generated from the basic pattern, namely: 5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7-12.
The path sequence must begin with an odd number and then the row must be composed of even and odd numbers alternately. The center is named with “12”, as it is the outside.

I draw a circle and divide it into 12 parts, as for a dial. Now I have to connect all points with lines, but same-colored lines must not cross.

5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7-12

5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7-12

I start with blue in 12 and go to 5, 2, 3, 4 (Fig. 1). Then from 4 to 1, thereby I change the colour (Fig. 2). I continue with 6, 11, 8, 9, 10 (Fig. 3). I again change the colour and complete the lines from 10 to  7 and 12 (Fig. 4).

But you can do it differently. For example, draw all the lines first in one color and then the intersecting ones in the other. Here again, the same-colored  lines should not cross each other. But more than once, as long as they are different (see 4 – 7).

The web

The web

But since we are looking for new labyrinths, we now go the opposite way: We draw a network of 12 lines, which connects all 12 points according to the above specifications and derive from this the path sequence.

Here is an example:

The web with the polygon

The web with the polygon

I write the first path sequence in line 2 (here in blue), starting at 12 and reading the lower digit, here 5. This is the beginning of the path. Then I follow the polygon until I land at 12 again and get: 5-2-3-4-1-6-11-10-9-8-7-12. That’s the original.
Now I go backwards and write the path sequence in line 3. So from 12 to 7, etc. That gives: 7-8-9-10-11-6-1-4-3-2-5-12. This is the complementary to the original.

I receive the lines 1 and 4 by arithmetic. I add the corresponding numbers of each row to “12”. In line 4, I get the dual to the original. In line 1, I get the complementary to the dual.

I verify this by comparing the numerical columns thus obtained with the others in “reverse”. This applies to the lines 1 and 4, as well as 2 and 3.
This is reminiscent of what has been described before when dealing with the dual and complementary labyrinths (see Related Posts below).

But there are alternatives. I turn the dial around, write the numbers for the 12 dots to the left, counterclockwise.
This is how it looks like:

The web with the two dials

The web with the two dials

The left side shows the dial as before. I start at 5, count to 12 and get the original. Then I start at 7 and count again to 12 and get the complementary to the original.
Now the right dial. I also start at 5 and count to 12 and so get the dual to the original. Then again from 7 to 12 and I get the complementary to the dual.

What should the blue written path sequences mean? They point out that the entry into the labyrinth can be placed on the same axis as the entry into the center. Here on circuit 5 and 7. Walter Pullen calls this that a labyrinth layout is mergeable. This allows you to construct a small recessed spot in the labyrinth, which some name the heart space. Especially in the concentric style, this can be implemented well.

From these two newly obtained path sequences, I now construct two new 11 circuit labyrinths in concentric style:

They have a different pattern of movement than the upt to now known labyrinths. In addition, we see 6 turning points for the circuits.

This is the dual to the previous labyrinth. Again, there is another “feeling”.

Who makes the beginning and builds such a labyrinth?

The other two paths sequences also result in new labyrinths, which I don’t show here. These belong to the remaining 1000 variants that are theoretically possible for 11 circuit labyrinths.

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In my last posts I had shown the method of transforming the Medieval labyrinth by leaving out the barriers.

The first possibility to generate a labyrinth is of course the use of the seed pattern. Thus most of the Scandinavian Troy Towns with 7, 11, or 15 circuits were created.

Some years ago I wrote about the meander technique. Thereby many new, up to now unknown labyrinths have already originated.

Andreas still has demonstrated another possibility in his posts to the dual and complementary labyrinths. New versions of already known types therein can be generated by rotating and mirroring.

Now I want to use this technology to introduce some new variations.

I refer to simple, alternating transit mazes (labyrinths). Tony Phillips as a Mathematician uses this designation to explore the labyrinth. He also states the number of the theoretically possible variations of 11 circuit interesting labyrinths: 1014 examples.

The theoretically possible interesting variations of the 3 up to 7 circuit labyrinths once already appeared in this blog.

I construct the examples shown here in the concentric style. One can relatively simply effect this on the basis of the path sequence (= circuit sequence or level sequence). There is no pattern necessary.  The path sequence is also the distinguishing mark of the different variations.

I begin with the well known 11circuit classical labyrinth which can be generated from the seed pattern:

The 11 circuit labyrinth from the seed pattern

The 11 circuit labyrinth from the seed pattern

To create the dual version of it, I number the different circuits from the inside to the outside, then I walk from the inside to the outside and write down the number of the circuits in the order in which I walk one after the other. This is the new path sequence. The result is: 5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7- (12).
In this case it is identical to the original, so there no new labyrinth arises. Therefore, this labyrinth is self-dual. This in turn testifies to a special quality of this type.

Now I generate the complementary version. For that to happen I complement the single digits of the path sequence to the digit of the centre, here “12”.
5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7
7-10-9-8-11-6-1-4-3-2-5
If I add the single values of the row on top to the values of the row below, I will get “12” for every addition.

Or, I read the path sequence in reverse order. This amounts to the same new path sequence. But this is only possible with self-dual labyrinths.

I now draw a labyrinth to this path sequence 7-10-9-8-11-6-1-4-3-2-5-12.
Thus it looks:

The complementary 11 circuit labyrinth from the seed pattern

The complementary 11 circuit labyrinth from the seed pattern

This new labyrinth is hardly known up to now.


Now I take another labyrinth already shown in the blog which was generated with meander technique, however, a not self-dual one.

The original 11 circuit labyrinth from meander technique

The original 11 circuit labyrinth from meander technique

First, I determine the path sequence for the dual labyrinth by going inside out. And will get: 7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-11-10-9- (12).

Then I construct the dual labyrinth after this path sequence.
This is how it looks like:

The dual 11 circuit labyrinth

The dual 11 circuit labyrinth

Now I can generate the complementary specimens for each of the two aforementioned labyrinths.

Upper row the original. Bottom row the complementary one.
3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5
9-10-11-8-1-6-3-4-5-2-7
The bottom row is created by adding the upper row to “12”.

The complementary labyrinth looks like this:

The complementary labyrinth of the original

The complementary labyrinth of the original

Now the path sequence of the dual in the upper row. The complementary in the lower one.
7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-11-10-9
5-10-7-8-9-6-11-4-1-2-3
Again calculated by addition to “12”.

This looks thus:

The complementary labyrinth of the dual

The complementary labyrinth of the dual

I have gained three new labyrinths to the already known one. For a self-dual labyrinth I will only receive one new.

Now I can continue playing the game. For the newly created complementary labyrinths I could generate dual labyrinths by numbering from the inside to the outside.

The dual of the complementary to the original results in the complementary of the dual labyrinth. And the dual of the complementary to the dual one results in the complementary one of the original.

The path sequences written side by side makes it clear. In the upper row the original is on the left, the dual on the right.
In the row below are the complementary path sequences. On the left the complementary to the original. And on the right the  complementary to the dual one.

3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5  *  7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-11-10-9
9-10-11-8-1-6-3-4-5-2-7  *  5-10-7-8-9-6-11-4-1-2-3

The upper and lower individual digits added together, gives “12”.

It can also be seen that the sequences of paths read crosswise are backwards to each other.

I can also use these properties if I want to create new labyrinths. By interpreting the path sequences of the original and the dual backwards, I create for the original the complementary of the dual, and for the dual the complementary of the original. And vice versa.

If I have a single path sequence, I can calculate the remaining three others purely mathematically.

Sounds confusing, it is too, because we are talking about labyrinths.

For a better understanding you should try it yourself or study carefully the post from Andreas on this topic (Sequences … see below).

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