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In the preceding parts the meander row was used or different types were combined. Now an other kind of the combination should be expressed.

In a meander the first line (called “0” in the sequence) is the surroundings of the labyrinth, the place where the way starts. The last line is already the center, where the way ends. In a meander row the first line and the last line of an element are “overlaid”. This line forms a circuit more when a labyrinth is generated from it. However, one can leave out this line and add directly the next element, even mirrored or turned around.

I already used such a meander in my first post about the construction of a labyrinth from a meander without overlooking, however, the whole connections.
To read up in the post from January 6, 2012: How to Turn a Meander into a Labyrinth.

Here once again the first transformation:

I take the meander type 4 and add a rotated meander of the same type without “interlink”.
I get a 6 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-6-5-4-7.

A 6 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 6 circuit Knidos labyrinth

This is a 6 circuit classical labyrinth with a bigger middle. One could call it also Jericho labyrinth, because these have only 6 circuits and consequently 7 walls.
This alignment have been found up to now in no historical labyrinth. How could one name it correctly? The statement about the path sequence only is not enough.

Furthermore I have discovered that it is possible to change the direction of a circuit and to cross the axis while developing a labyrinth directly from the path sequence. This leads to different labyrinth forms with the same path sequence. (Andreas Frei calls it different patterns).

For the above mentioned path sequence there is still an other possibility to construct a labyrinth. It looks thus:

A 6 circuit Knidos labyrinth with "crossed axis"

A 6 circuit Knidos labyrinth with “crossed axis”

Besides, the main axis is “crossed” when turning from the first to the sixth circuit. I practically circle  around the center and shift the following changes of the course to the other side.
Then, however, the meander from the previous example is not appropriate any more. (Andreas Frei has generously drawn my attention to this fact).
The appropriate meander as a picture of the angular thread of Ariadne arises only afterwards and could look like on top.
The labyrinth is another type than the previous one in spite of the same path sequence.

This alignment is known in historical labyrinths.

In the catalogue of Andreas Frei this type is called “St. Gallen“.


Now I combine the meander type 6 and type 4 in this way.
I will get a 8 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-8-7-6-9.

A 8 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 8 circuit Knidos labyrinth

To my knowledge this alignment was not used in historical labyrinths, and up to now no labyrinth was built with it. So we have a new type.

As before there is an other variation possible, however, we leave it out.


I take once again meander type 4 and join three of them without “interlink”.
I get a 9 circuit labyrinth with 6 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-6-5-4-9-8-7-10.

A 9 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 9 circuit Knidos labyrinth

To my knowledge this alignment was not used in historical labyrinths, and up to now no labyrinth was built with it. So we have a new type.

As one sees, (almost) no limits are set to the imagination and still many combinations are conceivable.

Now it is a matter rather of finding out or realize the nicest or “walking-friendliest” of all these new types.

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In the first part we connected meanders  of the same type. Now we want to combine the different types.

We will start with the types 4 and 6. As first I take type 4 and attach type 6.
I will get a 9 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-9-6-7-8-5-10.

A 9 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 9 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can call the labyrinth: A 9 circuit  classical labyrinth with a larger center or a 9 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-9-6-7-8-5-10.
It can be also developed from the well-known seed pattern in modified form.
In the catalogue of Andreas Frei this type is called “Löwenstein 9a“.


Now I take first type 6 and attach type 4.
Again I get a 9 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points, but the path sequence changes to 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-9-8-7-10.

A 9 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 9 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: A 9 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or a 9 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-9-8-7-10.
It can be also developed from the well-known seed pattern in modified form.
In the catalogue of Andreas Frei this type is called “Löwenstein 9b“.


Now we combine type 4 and type 8 and must obtain two different 11 circuit labyrinths with 4 turning points.

First I take type 4 and attach type 8.
I will get a 11 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5-12.

A 11 circuit  Knidos labyrinth

A 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: A 11 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or a 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5-12.

To my knowledge this alignment was not used in historical labyrinths, and up to now no labyrinth was built with it.


Now I take type 8 first and attach type 4.
I get a 11 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-11-10-9-12.

An 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth

An 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: An 11 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or an 11 circuit  Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-11-10-9-12.

To my knowledge this alignment was not used in historical labyrinths, and up to now no labyrinth was built with it.


Now I take first type 8 and attach type 6.
I get a 13 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-13-10-11-12-9-14.

A 13 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 13 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: A 13 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 11 a circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-13-10-11-12-9-14.

To my knowledge this alignment was not used in historical labyrinths, and up to now no labyrinth was built with it.


Now I take first type 6 and attach type 8.
I get a 13 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-13-8-11-10-9-12-7-14.

A 13 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 13 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: A 13 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or a 13 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-13-8-11-10-9-12-7-14.

To my knowledge this alignment was not used in historical labyrinths, and up to now no labyrinth was built with it.

One could make up still more combinations. For example, the types 4, 6 and 8 connected together, would amount to a 17 circuit labyrinth with 6 turning points. Then one could change the order: First type 8, then type 6 and then type 4. This would amount to a 17 circuit labyrinth again, but with an other path sequence.
This labyrinths however would be too big and “unwieldy” to work with them.

One could also combine two identical types with another, e.g., first type 4, then type 6, then again type 4. This would result in a 13 circuit labyrinth with 6 turning points.

Or type 8, then twice type 4 would result in a 15 circuit labyrinth with 6 turning points.

We save the construction. At the end we will generate a 15 circuit labyrinth from the types 4 and 6.

I take type 6 at first, followed by type 4 and once again type 6. This results in a 15 circuit labyrinth with 6 turning points. The path sequence is 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-9-8-7-10-15-12-13-14-11-16.

A 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: A 15 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or a 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 6 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-9-8-7-10-15-12-13-14-11-16.

To my knowledge this alignment was not used in historical labyrinths, and up to now no labyrinth was built with it.

It would be interesting to walk this labyrinth and to experience its rhythm. Even for a gardener it would be a challenge. Who will venture the adventure?

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After the discovery of the “true” meander we will now come to the meander technique. What should this be?
In previous articles I have shown how one can generate a labyrinth from different meanders. The result were partly already known labyrinth types, but also up to now unknown types.

The mostly known 7 circuit  classical labyrinth is generated from the also well-known seed pattern. Most of the historical labyrinths with one axis have probably been constructed the same way. One could call this procedure the seed pattern method.

However, a 7 circuit classical labyrinth can also be generated from two joined meanders of the type 4. If I now make a row of more meanders, I can derive a line sequence from it and produce a labyrinth. I would like to call this the meander technique.

From 1 meander of the type 4 I will obtain a 3 circuit labyrinth with 2 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4.

A 3 circuit meander labyrinth

A 3 circuit meander labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: 3 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 3 circuit Knidos labyrinth or 3 circuit meander labyrinth or Knossos labyrinth.
I could add: with 2 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4.
In the catalogue of Andreas Frei this type is called “Knossos“.


From 2 meanders of the type 4 I will obtain a 7 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-7-6-5-8.

A 7 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 7 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: 7 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 7 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
It is the oldest and most widespread labyrinth and also known as Cretan labyrinth.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-7-6-5-8.
In the catalogue of Andreas Frei this type is called “Das Kretische“.


From 3 meanders of the type 4 I will obtain a 11 circuit labyrinth with 6 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-7-6-5-8-11-10-9-12.

A 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: 11 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
The design for this labyrinth is known from a script from 868 AC and generally called type Otfrid.
I could add: with 6 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-7-6-5-8-11-10-9-12.
In the catalogue of Andreas Frei this type is called “Otfrid“.


From 4 meanders of the type 4 I will obtain a 15 circuit labyrinth with 8 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-7-6-5-8-11-10-9-12-15-14-13-16.

A 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: 15 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-3-2-1-4-7-6-5-8-11-10-9-12-15-14-13-16.
This labyrinth is historically unknown as far as I know, thus a new type.


The series could be continued and I would get nothing but new labyrinths.
The principle might be clear: I attach a meander more and will get four more circuits (if I have type 4).

The rules: Each meander has 2 turning points. The number of the circuits results in the formula: C = (a x b) – 1. C stand for the number of circuits, a for the number of meanders, and b is the number of the type.

We apply this now to type 6 and look at the labyrinths generated from it.

From 1 meander of the type 6 I will obtain a 5 circuit labyrinth with 2 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6.

A 5 circuit meander labyrinth

A 5 circuit meander labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: 5 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 5 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 2 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6.
This labyrinth is historically unknown as far as I know, thus a new type.


From 2 meanders of the type 6 I will obtain a 11 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7-12.

A 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: 11 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 11 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
It corresponds to the 11 circuit classical labyrinth that can be generated from the enlarged seed pattern and forms the basis of most historical Troy Towns. However, there it has a smaller middle.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7-12.

In the catalogue of Andreas Frei this type is called “Hesselager“.


From 3 meanders of the type 6 I will obtain a 17 circuit labyrinth with 6 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7-12-17-14-15-16-13-18.

A 17 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 17 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: 17 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 17 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 6 turning points and the path sequence 0-5-2-3-4-1-6-11-8-9-10-7-12-17-14-15-16-13-18.
This labyrinth is historically unknown as far as I know, thus a new type.

Also here I could continue. However, that would generate only gigantic and “unwieldy” labyrinths.

We rather go to type 8.

From 1 meander of the type 8 I will obtain a 7 circuit labyrinth with 2 turning points and the path sequence 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8.

A 7 circuit meander labyrinth

A 7 circuit meander labyrinth

I can call the labyrinth: 7 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or a 7 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
I could add: with 2 turning points and the path sequence 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8.
This labyrinth is historically unknown as far as I know, thus a new type.


From 2 meanders of the type 8 I will obtain a 15 circuit labyrinth with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-15-10-13-12-11-14-9-16.

A 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth

A 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth

I can name the labyrinth: 15 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center or 15 circuit Knidos labyrinth.
It corresponds to the 15 circuit classical labyrinth that can be generated from the enlarged seed pattern and forms the basis of some historical Troy Towns. However, there it has a smaller middle.
I could add: with 4 turning points and the path sequence 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-15-10-13-12-11-14-9-16.
In the catalogue of Andreas Frei this type is called “Tibble“.

From 3 meanders of the type 8 we will obtain 23 circuits in accord with the formula: (3 multiplied by 8) minus 1 = 23 circuits with 6 turning points. This we save.

We will get with this method which I would like to call meander technique, known as well as up to now unknown labyrinth types.

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The preoccupation with the meander has proved that there is basically only one single “true” meander which is suitable for the construction of a labyrinth. Since it depends on the right twist. The number of the lines does not play the decisive role.

I have tried to make a classification and would like to propose it here. Though one could speak of a simple meander, or a double or triple and so on. Because here, however, the production of a labyrinth is in the foreground, I find it better to orientate on the number of lines in a meander. The connecting element between meander and labyrinth is the line and, respectively the path sequence (Tony Phillips calls it level sequence). Through this path sequence the alignment of a labyrinth and its type is fixed. The number of the circuits is not sufficient. It depends on the movement form and this is expressed in the order, in that the circuits are passed.

The basic type of a meander is build from four lines. In a meander row the pattern recurs, but in the horizontal lines the element is included. As the first vertical line and the last one are identical, I enumerate the first vertical line with “0”. That stands for outside, and the last line (here 4) for the center.

Type 4: 0-3-2-1-4

I read the line and path sequence out of the numbers of the vertical lines (written horizontally in the drawing). This is the order in which the lines will run through the meander (and in the labyrinth). So I will get: 0-3-2-1-4.

With this set of numbers I transform the angular, straight-line meander into a labyrinth with its entwined lines. This has three circuits with two turning points. I construct directly the path (Ariadne’s thread) of the labyrinth based on the path sequence without using a basic pattern for the boundary lines (walls). They arise by itself as the limitation of the way.

The 3 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center

The 3 circuit classical labyrinth with a larger center

If I extend now the free ends of the two lines of the meander in all directions, adding so two more lines, I arrive at the next step and will have the type 6.

Type 6

Type 6: 0-5-2-3-4-1-6

The line and path sequence deduced from it is: 0-5-2-3-4-1-6. Based on it I can generate a 5 circuit labyrinth with two turning points.

The 5 circuit meander labyrinth

The 5 circuit meander labyrinth

The next enlargement leads to the type 8:

Type 8

Type 8: 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8

The line and path sequence results in: 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8.
The 7 circuit labyrinth with two turning points and a bigger middle developed from it looks like this:

The 7 circuit meander labyrinth

The 7 circuit meander labyrinth

In the following drawing all 3 types are shown together. Thereby the “right turning moment” of the meander is indicated better.

The labyrinth meander

The labyrinth meander

By enlargement one could continue the row of the types, however, this would not be interesting any more.

In the labyrinths generated from the meander is striking that the first walked circuit immediately circles the center and then is commuting outwardly. Then the entering of the middle happens directly from completely outside. We thereby receive quite an other “feeling” than by walking the more known classical labyrinth which is generated from the basic pattern.

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In the following posts the 3 different labyrinth types were treated once before and the construction explained explicitly.

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