How to make an Indian Labyrinth

What does I mean by “Indian labyrinth”? Therewith I understand at first a simple 3- or more circuit labyrinth (round two turning points) with a spiral in the middle. The spiral can have any number of lines. We therefore deal with a composite design.

The Labyrinth Society (TLS) classifies it as “Other Classical Seed Patterns”, whereby as subtypes are named the “Chakra-Vyuha Labyrinth” and the “Baltic Labyrinth”.

This type is still floating around, and is it as a decoration on a birthday tart, as recently did Lisa Gidlow Moriarty (USA):

Chakra Vyuha on a tart

Chakra Vyuha on a birthday tart, created and © Lisa Moriarty

Such a labyrinth can be generated from a seed pattern which is based on a triangle. It is also called Chakra Vyuha. However, there are also other seed patterns known (see related Posts below).

And therefore it is diffculty to classify all the types in a common typology, partly because they emerge quite differently in time and space.

I start with a simple labyrinth. It is found in Hermann Kern’s book and dates from the 12th century.

Chakra Vyuha

The Indian Labyrinth, Source: Hermann Kern, Labyrinthe (1982), fig. 602, p. 422 (German edition)

The Babylonian visceral labyrinth on a clay tablet with the number 9560 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin is about 2000 years older. The archeologist Ernst Friedrich Weidner (read more here) shows it in a report from 1917 as fig. 4:

The Babylonian visceral labyrinth

The Babylonian visceral labyrinth VAT 9560, fig. 4

This does not look as if it had been made from a basic pattern.

The visceral labyrinth in three moves

The visceral labyrinth in three moves

But it can be drawn in three moves. I begin in the middle, draw the spiral, make a loop outwards on the right side and shift in a bow to the left side (green line). Then I begin a new line inside the loop, round the preceding line and end the line at the underside of the spiral (blue line). The third line begins near the preceding line and shifts to the left (yellow line).

The Chakra Vyuha can be drawn the same way:

The Chakra Vyuha in two moves

The Chakra Vyuha in two moves

The path of the labyrinth, Ariadne’s thread, must be drawn in one move.

This can be done from the inside outwardly or also vice versa.

I had described a method to generate walk-through labyrinths from the type Wunderkreis with any desired circuits in the post “Variations on the Wunderkreis” (see related posts below).

This method, easily modified, can be also used to generate the composite labyrinths with spirals from any desired twists and simple labyrinths with three and more circuits.

Once again briefly the principles:

I begin in the middle and draw a spiral with at least one, however, also any desired turns. The boundary lines are colored in green, the path (Ariadne’s thread) in brown.

Round the spiral I add the desired number of labyrinthine circuits, at least three up to more (endlessly). But always an odd number.

From the outside inwards I draw the loops (in yellow). Because I must have an odd number of line ends for the boundary lines on every side, I begin or finish one line at the underside of the spiral.

In order to draw the boundary lines the middle free line inside the loops is extended forwards (in red).

In order to draw Ariadne’s thread I extend the most internal line forwards on the side with the odd number of line ends (in red). The remaining free line ends are connected in loops (in yellow).

In the last example I turn one more “lap of honour” (in black) around the whole. So I may produce with the right number of circuits the  historically verified Windelburg of Stolp.

The Windelburg of Stolp

The Windelburg of Stolp

The Windelburg of Stolp had a 3 circuit spiral and 15 labyrinthine circuits plus an additional circuit completely around.

How should one now classify the presented examples properly? One surely can not label all as Indian labyrinths. The Windelburg belongs rather to the Troy Towns and is also counted to the Baltic labyrinths. However, they all have the same pattern, belong to the same type.

To be able to build a labyrinth, one must bring it in a geometrically correct form. For this I choose the Windelburg, make less circuits and provide it in a layout drawing.

A new Windelburg

A new Windelburg

I present it as sort of prototype with 1 meter dimension between axes, a 2 circuit spiral and 9 labyrinthine circuits as a PDF file to look at, to print or to download.

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How to Make a Walkable Babylonian Visceral Labyrinth

In the meantime, I could put on some walkable visceral labyrinths. As a walk through labyrinth without central middle it provides quite new experiences.

It is a new type of labyrinth: An unequivocal way through a labyrinth, not into a labyrinth.


Babylonian intestinal labyrinth

Babylonian intestinal labyrinth

As a name came to my mind also: Tapeworm labyrinth or intestinal labyrinth.

Because it is, however, only the geometrically exact transformation of the figure on the clay tablet VAT 744 of the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin, one could also maintain the name chosen by Ernst Friedrich Weidner in 1917 “Berlin Labyrinth”.

Quite unexpectedly has turned out that this special type is a “pair labyrinth”. Since one can go from the beginning side by side on different paths and meets only at one single place with a change of course.

While marking out the labyrinth I have also found out how one should proceed while putting on the labyrinth. The following drawings will explain this clearer.

At first the approximate middle is fixed in point M4 and following the main axis up to the point M5 (9.00 m).

The further salient points are fixed with triangulation measurement from 2 points.

This is here only the point B. With the distance M4-B (8.00 m) and the distance M5-B (5.67 m) point B is marked out.

The exact measurements for a prototype with 1 m dimension between axes are found in the layout drawing below.

Point A lies in the lengthening of the line from point B through M4 by 6.00 m.

Then one fixes the midpoints M1, M3 and M2 along this line. Maybe also the beginning or end points of the arcs with a distance of 1 m.

To this see Fig. 1.Fig. 1 and 2
Now it is best, to pull all eight semicircles in the right upper part.

The first four semicircles 1 – 4 have M1 as midpoint and are drawn with the radii 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, 4m.

The different arcs, midpoints and numbers are shown colourfully differently.

To this see Fig. 2.
Fig. 3 and 4

Around M2 there is only one semicircle (radius 1 m). This is at the same time the “secret” middle with the sickle-shaped left blank figure.

Around M3 there are three semicircles (with the radii 5 m, 6 m, 7 m). Here don’t let you confuse by the design of the curves. Since they begin or end together with other curves. Thus the sickle-shaped “fontanel” is also generated.

To this see Fig. 3.

Then around M4 one pulls six semicircles 1 – 6 (beginning with radius 1 m, further to radius 6 m) in the left lower part up to the sloping line.

The both curves 7 and 8 with the radii 7 m and 8 m are only drawn up to the vertical between M4 and M5.

To this see Fig. 4.
Fig. 5 and 6

Around M5 are the three quarter circles 1 – 3 to pull (radius 1 m to radius 3 m) for the input area.

To this see Fig. 5.

All lines (the boundary lines) of the labyrinth are to be seen in Fig. 6. The actual way through the labyrinth is the free area between these lines.

The following layout drawing is a sort of prototype with the dimension between axes of 1 m for the distance from line to line. This corresponds to a path width of 1 m. The remaining measurements arise from this definition and the design of the labyrinth.

The construction is scaleable. This means, all the other desired path widths can be derived from it.

The following photos show the labyrinth with a path width of 50 cm. All measurements were multiplied by the factor 0.5 to build them.

If e.g., a path width of 60 cm is wished, one takes the factor 0.6. All other measurements of the drawing are to be calculated with this factor, so also the path length, the line length, the main dimensions, the radii, the sloping distances of the midpoints etc.

Layout drawing

Layout drawing

Two examples for a path width of 50 cm:

The worldwide first labyrinth of this kind on grass in the garden of the co-founder of the TLS Gundula Thormaehlen Friedman in Bad Kreuznach (Germany).

The second one on the pavement of the parking place in front of our home in Würzburg (Germany).

Sprayed on grass

Sprayed on grass

Painted with chalk on pavement

Painted with chalk on pavement

Walking two by two: The test by our grandson and his girlfriend from the neighborhood.

Here the layout drawing as a PDF file to watch/print/copy/save (for non commercial uses only) …

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