# How to sort a Labyrinth Group

Where does a labyrinth belong? And what relatives does it have? How do I actually sort the related labyrinths in a group? What kind of relationships are there? Or: How do I find the related ones in a group?

If I want to know something more, I first take an arbitrary labyrinth and generate the further relatives of a group by counting backwards and completing the numbers of the circuit sequences. It doesn’t matter whether I “catch” the basic labyrinth by chance or any member of the group.

As an example, I’ll take the 11 circuit labyrinth chosen as the second suggestion in my last post. Here it can be seen in a centered version in Knidos style:

The level sequence is: 0-7-2-5-4-3-6-1-8-11-10-9-12. The entrance to the labyrinth is on the 7th circuit, the entrance to the center is from the 9th circuit. This is the reason to name it 7_9 labyrinth.

By counting backwards (and swapping 0 and 12), I create the transpose labyrinth to it: 0-9-10-11-8-1-6-3-4-5-2-7-12.

The entrance to the labyrinth is on the 9th circuit, and the entrance to the center is on the 7th circuit.

Now I complete this circuit sequence 9-10-11-8-1-6-3-4-5-2-7 to the number 12 of the center, and get the following level sequence: 0-3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5-12. This results in the corresponding complementary version.

Now a labyrinth is missing, because there are four different versions for the non-self-dual types.
The easiest way to do this is to count backwards again (so I form the corresponding transpose version) and get from the circuit sequence 0-3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5-12 the circuit sequence: 0-5-10-7-8-9-6-11-4-1-2-3-12.
Alternatively, however, I could have produced the complementary copy by completing the digits of the path sequence of the first example above to 12.

The entrance to the labyrinth is made on the 5th circuit, and the entrance to the center is made from the 3rd circuit.

Now I have produced many transpose and complementary copies. But which is the basic labyrinth and which the dual? And the “real” transpose and complementary ones?

Sorting is done on the basis of the circuit sequences. The basic labyrinth is the one that starts with the lowest digit: 0-3-2-1-4-11-6-9-8-7-10-5-12, in short: the 3_5 labyrinth, i.e. our third example above.

The next is the transpose, the 5_3 labyrinth, the fourth example above.

This is followed by the dual, the 7_9 maze, which is the first example above.

The fourth is the complementary labyrinth, the 9_7 labyrinth, the second example above.

The order is therefore: B, T, D, C. This is independent of how the labyrinth was formed, whether by counting backwards or by completing the circuit sequences.

To conclude a short excerpt from the work of Yadina Clark, who is in the process of working out basic principles about labyrinth typology:

## Groups

### Labyrinths related by Base-Dual-Transpose-Complement relationships

Any labyrinth in a group can be chosen as the base starting point to look at these relationships, but the standard arrangement of the group begins with the numerically lowest circuit sequence string in the base position.

Related Posts

# How to Make the Related Labyrinths

I use a different method to generate the related labyrinths than Andreas. But I’ll get the same result. This is how we complement each other.

Essentially, I am using the level or path (= circuit) sequence to get the version of a particular labyrinth I want. Also, I am taking the path sequence to construct the labyrinth, not the seed pattern.

I usually number from the outside in (the left digits in blue), additionally here from the inside to the outside (the right digits in green).
The level sequence for the basic labyrinth is here: 0-1-2-5-4-3-6. “0” stands for outside, “6” stands for the center. We have a 5 circuit labyrinth in front of us. “1” to “5” are the numbers of the circuits (paths), hence the path sequence 1-2-5-4-3 (fig. 1).

To create the dual labyrinth, I just use the green numbers on the right side of the basic labyrinth. I determine the level sequence by going outwards from the center. I get 6-3-2-1-4-5-0. Now I draw a labyrinth using this row of digits, going from the outside to the center. But first I replace “6” with “0” and “0” with “6”, I swap inside and outside as it were. The new level sequence is then: 0-3-2-1-4-5-6 (fig. 2).

The left numbers now indicate the level sequence: 0-3-2-1-4-5-6. If I now read the green numbers on the right side, I of course get the basic labyrinth again.

Now I use another technique to get the transposed labyrinth. I take the path sequence of the dual labyrinth, here: 3-2-1-4-5 and complement all numbers to “6”.
3-2-1-4-5 dual
3-4-5-2-1 transpose
————
6-6-6-6-6
The second line, completed by “0” for the outside and “6” for the center, gives the level sequence for the transposed labyrinth: 0-3-4-5-2-1-6 (fig. 3).

But there is still a different technique to get there: I can read the path sequence from the basic labyrinth backwards and again complete with “0” and “6”.
1-2-5-4-3 base
3-4-5-2-1 transpose
The second line, completed by “0” for the outside and “6” for the center, also gives the level sequence for the transposed labyrinth: 0-3-4-5-2-1-6 (fig.3).

If I now take the green numbers of the right side, I’ll get the dual of this transposed labyrinth, which is the next, the complementary labyrinth with the level sequence: 0-5-4-1-2-3-6 (fig. 4).

But again there is also the above described technique to get the complementary labyrinth. I take the basic labyrinth and complement the numbers of its path sequence to “6”.
1-2-5-4-3 base
5-4-1-2-3 complement
————
6-6-6-6-6
The second line, completed by “0” for the outside and “6” for the center, gives the level sequence for the complementary labyrinth: 0-5-4-1-2-3-6 (fig. 4).

I can also take the dual labyrinth and read the path sequence backwards, and again add “0” and “6”.
3-2-1-4-5 dual
5-4-1-2-3 transpose
The second line, added with outside and center gives the level sequence for the complementary labyrinth: 0-5-4-1-2-3-6 (fig. 4).

If I now take the green numbers on the right side, I’ll get the dual labyrinth to this complementary labyrinth, namely the transposed labyrinth with the level sequence: 0-3-4-5-2-1-6 (fig. 3).

So we have seen three different ways to transform one labyrinth into another by using the path or level sequence.

However, it only takes two methods to create the appropriate labyrinths. I personally prefer the “transposing” technique and the “complementing” technique.

First we have the basic labyrinth (fig.1). Through transposing the path sequence of the basic labyrinth 1-2-5-4-3 into 3-4-5-2-1 I’ll then get the transposed labyrinth (fig.3).
This transposed labyrinth with the path sequence 3-4-5-2-1 I transform to the dual labyrinth by complementing the path sequence to 3-2-1-4-5 (fig.2).
This dual labyrinth I then transform to the complementary labyrinth by transposing its path sequence 3-2-1-4-5 into 5-4-1-2-3 for the complementary labyrinth (fig.4).
For control purposes, I can transform the basic labyrinth into the complementary by complementing the path sequence 1-2-5-4-3 of the basic into 5-4-1-2-3 (fig. 4) for the complementary.

All of these transformation methods have the same effect as the rotating and mirroring techniques by Andreas.

Related Post

# The Related Labyrinths

The subject of closely related labyrinths has been treated on this blog already repeatedly. When deriving the complementary labyrinth, I have encountered the group of the four related labyrinths. This occurred when I derived the complementary of the base labyrinth and then derived the duals of the base and the complement (see: related posts 1, below). As a fourth labyrinth there indirectly resulted the dual of the complement what is nothing else than the transpose.

Richard Myers Shelton, however, has published this group of closely related labyrinths already earlier°. In his article, he introduced the concept of the transpose. He derived the transpose of the base labyrinth and subsequently derived the duals of the base and the transpose. Thus, as a fourth labyrinth there indirectly resulted the dual of the transpose what is the same as the complementary labyrinth.

We are thus presented with two different representations of the same situation. In the following, I want to examine this further and in addition will present a third version of the same situation. I will again base my considerations on the labyrinth with one axis and five circuits I had already used when deriving the complementary labyrinth (related posts 2). This is the second of the eight different alternating labyrinths with one axis and five circuits and the simplest labyrinth for which a complete group of four closely related labyrinths exists. This is the “base” labyrinth and has the three relatives, the “dual”, the “transpose”, and the “complement” as shown in fig. 1.

In fig. 2 I show, how we can directly derive the other three labyrinths from the base labyrinth. For this, the pattern of the labyrinth is used. The pattern is obtained from the Ariadne’s Thread in the rectangular form (related posts 3).

In the first line, the derivation of the dual pattern is shown. For this purpose, the base pattern is rotated by 180 degrees. The connections to the outside (triangle) and to the center (bullet point) are interrupted. After rotation, these ends are reconnected, but the connections are exchanged.

The second line shows how the transpose pattern is derived. For this, the base pattern is mirrored horizontally (against the vertical). Again, the connections to the exterior and the center are interrupted. After mirroring, the ends point to the wrong direction. They have to be flipped to be reconnected with the exterior and the center. These two operations mirroring and flipping are combined in icon symbolizing the transpose operation.

In the third line, the derivation of the complementary pattern is shown. This is obtained by vertically mirroring the pattern (mirroring against the horizontal). Similarly, the connections to the exterior and the center are interrupted and after mirroring, the ends point to the wrong direction. They have to be flipped to be reconnected with the exterior and the center. These two operations mirroring and flipping are combined in icon symbolizing the complement operation.

These are the three operations that can be used to derive the dual, the transpose and the complementary labyrinth from the base labyrinth. A direct application of two of these operations is sufficient to indirectly effect the third one. Thus, the group of the four closely related labyrinths can be represented in three different ways. More about this in the next post.

° Shelton, Richard Myers. 2015. „Wayland’s New Labyrinths“ Caerdroia 44, 44-55.

Related Posts:

# The Dual Labyrinth Type Gossembrot 51 r

In one of his articles, Andreas introduced the relatives of the labyrinth type Gossembrot 51 r.

The labyrinth type Gossembrot 51 r centered and in concentric shape

Today I want to take a closer look at the dual version.
I particularly like this. This is because the outermost circuit (1) lead around all sectors. In the original, the innermost (7) completely circles the center.
And because it can be centered. The entrance takes place on the 3rd ring and the center is reached from the 5th ring. This also creates a small empty space.

I also like the rhythm, it is reminiscent of that of the Chartres labyrinth. It goes quickly to the middle and then follows the long walking in all sectors. Pretty much at the end you come back very close to the entrance, circle the entire labyrinth and then quickly get to the center.

An inverted pentagram is drawn in the middle in Gossembrot’s handwriting. I tried to fully integrate that. The top of the star points down. It is oriented in the direction of the 5 axes. Gossembrot designed the labyrinth around 1480. So this arrangement has no satanic character at all. These ideas only appeared in the middle of the 19th century.

I expressly recommend the excellent article on Wikipedia (see link below) about the geometry and meaning of the pentagram.

The dual and centered labyrinth type Gossembrot 51 r in Knidos style

The five axes also tempt you to choose a pentagonal layout. The same widths for the lines (in black) and the paths (in white) and the angular edges also give it a spatial effect.

The dual labyrinth type Gossembrot 51 r centered in pentagonal shape