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## The Relatives of the Wayland’s House Type Labyrinth

Just like the labyrinth from Ravenna, the Wayland’s House labyrinth is also a historical type of labyrinth with 4 arms and 7 circuits. There exist even two different Wayland’s House labyrinths (figure 1).

Figure 1. The Two Wayland’s House Labyrinths

I have named them as Wayland’s House 1 and Wayland’s House 2. Wayland’s House 1 first appeared in a manuscript of the 14th century, Wayland’s House 2 in a manuscript of the 15th century, both from Iceland. This can be easily looked up in Kern. In the following I refer to Wayland’s House 1.

In this type of labyrinth, the pathway does not enter on the first circuit and does not reach the center from the last circuit either. Therefore it is an interesting labyrinth. And also the complementary of it is an interesting labyrinth. This, however, is not the most important reason for why I present this type of labyrinth and its’ relatives here. Whereas no existing examples of any relative of the Ravenna labyrinth are known, there exists a contemporary type of labyrinth for each, the dual, complementary and complementary-dual of the Wayland’s House labyrinth.

Figure 2 shows the patterns of the original Wayland’s House labyrinth (a), the dual (b), complementary (c) and complementary-dual (d) labyrinths.

Figure 2. The Relatives of the Wayland’s House Type – Patterns

The original (a) and dual (b) both are interesting labyrinths. The complementaries of them, (c) and (d), are likewise interesting labyrinths.

Figure 3 shows the labyrinths corresponding to the patterns in their basic form with the walls delimiting the pathway shown on concentric layout and in clockwise rotation.

Figure 3. The Relatives of the Wayland’s House Type – Basic Forms

The relatives of the Wayland’s House type (a) are three of the so-called neo-medieval labyirnth types (there are other neo-medieval types of labyrinths too). These relatives are: dual (b) = „Petit Chartres“, complementary (c) = „Santa Rosa“, and complementary-dual (d) = „World Peace“ labyrinth.

So these contemporary types of labyrinths can be easily generated simply by rotating or mirroring of the pattern of Wayland’s House. This having stated I do not mean to pretend, these types of labyrinths have intentionally or knowingly been derived in such a way from the Wayland’s House type. Rather, available information suggests that they were created in a naive way, i.e without their designers having known about this relationship with the Wayland’s House type labyrinth. Nevertheless, actually, these modern neo-medieval labyrinths are the relatives of Wayland’s House.

The Wayland’s House labyrinth at first glance has some similarities with the Chartres type labyrinth. However it is not self dual and its course of the pathway is guided by an other principle yet. And this applies to its relatives too. Therefore the choice of the name „Petit Chartres“ to me seems inconvenient. It seems like this name was chosen because this type of labyrinth originally was designed in the Chartres-style. So this type seems to have been named after its style.

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## The Relatives of the Ravenna-type Labyrinth

Among labyrinths with mulitple arms it is also common that one labyrinth is interesting and the complementary to it is uninteresting. An example for this is the labyrinth of the type Ravenna (figure 1).

Figure 1. The Labyrinth of Ravenna

This labyrinth has 4 arms and 7 circuits. The pathway enters it on the innermost circuit and reaches the center from the fifth circuit. It is, thus, an interesting labyrinth. This type of labyrinth has been named after the example laid in church San Vitale from Ravenna. What is really special in this example is the graphical design of the pathway. This is designed by a sequence of triangles pointing outwards. The effect is, that the direction from the inside out is strongly highlighted. This stands in contrast to the common way we use to approach a labyrinth and seems just an invitation to look up the dual of this labyrinth. Because the course of the pathway from the inside out of an original labyrinth is the same as the course from the outside into the dual labyrinth.

I term as relatives of an original labyrinth the dual, complementary, and complementary-dual labyrinths of it. In fig. 2 the patterns of the Ravenna-type labyrinth (a, original), the dual (b), the complementary (c), and the complementary-dual (d) of it are presented.

Figure 2. The Relatives of the Ravenna-type Labyrinth – Patterns

The original (a) and the dual (b) are interesting labyrinths. The complementaries of them are uninteresting labyrinths, because in these the pathway enters the labyrinth on the outermost circuit (c) or reaches the center from the innermost circuit (d). The dual of an interesting labyrinth always is an interesting labyrinth too, the dual of an unintersting is always uninteresting labyrinth too.

Figure 3 shows the labyrinths corresponding to the patterns in their basic form with the walls delimiting the pathway on concentric layout and in clockwise rotation. Presently, I am not aware of any existing examples of a dual (b), complementary (c) or complementary-dual (d) to the Ravenna type labyrinth (a).

Figure 3. The Relatives of the Ravenna-type Labyrinth – Basic Forms

From these basic forms it can be well seen that it seems justified to classify the complementary and complementary-dual labyrinths as uninteresting. The outermost (labyrinth c) and innermost (labyrinth d) respectively walls delimiting the path appear disrupted. Therefore labyrinths c and d seem less perfect than the original (a) and dual (b) labyrinths, where the pathway enters the labyrinth and reaches the center axially.

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